My ham radio adventure...
Friday, September 18, 2009
Sepasang pengantin baru mengalami gangguan kesihatan. Setelah diperiksa dengan teliti, doktor memberitahu perkara itu disebabkan oleh hubungan seks yang terlalu kerap.
"Untuk sementara waktu ini, anda berdua dinasihatkan supaya menghadkan kegiatan seks. Sebaiknya dua kali saja seminggu sahaja. Untuk memudahkan mengingat, saya sarankan untuk melakukan hubungan ini hanya pada hari yang bermula dengan huruf S, iaitu Selasa dan Sabtu," saran doktor.
Akan tetapi pada malam ketiga berpuasa dari membuat hubungan itu, sisuami tidak dapat lagi menahan nafsunya lalu mencumbui isterinya yang sedang tidur sehingga isterinya terjaga.
"Hari ini hari apa bang?" tanya si isteri.
(2)minyak wangi tertumpah..
Didalam satu bas diwaktu petang semasa ramai orang berebut-berebut untuk pulang ke rumah terdapat seorang gadis yang keadaanya agak resah sedang duduk berdepan dengan seorang lelaki jawa yang sedang berdiri berhimpit-himpit dengan penumpang yang lain. Memang kebiasaannya di waktu begini jalankan jem. Jadi bas tu tak dapat le bergerak dengan sempurna.
Gadis yang resah tu rupanya ..nak terkencing. Tetapi dia tak dapat turun sebab orang ramai dan bas tidak berhenti rumahnya pun jauh lagi. Tahan punya tahan last-last terkencing le sikit. Bila dia perasan dia pun buat-buatle buka handbag dan cuba mencari sesuatu .
Tanpa disedari Jawa didepannya dah perhatikan dia dengan agak lama juga.
Nak jadi cerita orang yang duduk sebelah gadis tersebut pun bangun sebab dah sampai. Jadi gadis tersebut pun alih le ketempat tersebut kerana sit dia
dah basah. Jadi Jawa ni pun nak duduk le. Bila dia tengok basah dia tanye kat gadis tersebut.
"Aduh bu..ngapa tempat ni basah ya"…
Jawab gadis tersebut "Ohh… tadi botol minyak wangi saya tertumpah. Saya cari tutupnya tapi tak jumpa. Dalam beg tangan pun tidak ada".
Jadi Jawa tu pun keluarkan le saputangannya dan lap sebelum duduk. Setelah duduk dia pun cium le saputangan tersebut untuk menghidu wangiannya. Bau-bau punya baru le jawatu tau rupanya air kencing sambil tersenyum jawa tu jawab.."Lo…Kalau minyak wangi jenama ini..Kalau mau, saya ada penutupnya."…..
Suki: Apa hal ni Joi? , macam ada masalah aja.
Ajoi: Aku tengah bengang dengan si Raman tu.
Suki: (dengan terkejut bertanya) Raman? Kenapa pulak?
Ajoi: Tak taulah aku apa yang dibuat dengan duit dia tu. Semalam tak ada duit, hari ni pun tak ada duit,
Suki: Laa..dia nak pinjam duit dengan engkau ke?
Ajoi: Tak, aku yang nak pinjam..(katanya sambil tersengih-sengih).
Friday, August 28, 2009
Thursday, August 20, 2009
Saturday, August 1, 2009
The confirm locations of this nationwide event are as follows:
1. Rumah Api Fort Cornwallis, Penang
Callsign: 9M4LHP (Lima Hotel Papa) (05.25.21N, 100.20.70E)
WLOL#: WMA 004 & ILLW #: MY 0003 (old) MY 0004 (new)
- Station Master: 9M2BA - Azmi Abdullah
- Coordinator : 9M2RR - Abdul Rahimi
2. Rumah Api Bukit Melawati, Kuala Selangor
Callsign: 9M4LHB (Lima Hotel Bravo) (03.20.48N, 101.14.70E)
WLOL#: WMA 005 & ILLW #: MY 0005
- Station Master: 9M2SQL - Abdul Mutalib
- Coordinator: 9W2SF - Syed Faisal
3. Rumah Api Bukit Jugra, Banting Selangor
Callsign: 9M4LHE (Lima Hotel Echo) (02.50.15N, 101.25.06E)
WLOL#: WMA 001 & ILLW #: MY 0006
- Station Master: 9M2JEN - Saiful Firdaus
- Coordinator: 9W2YR - Abd Rasid Ahmad Sidek
4. Rumah Api Cape Rachardo Tanjung Tuan, Port Dickson
Callsign: 9M4LHN (Lima Hotel November) (02.24.43N, 101.51.13E)
WLOL#: WMA 003 & ILLW #: MY 0001
- Station Master: 9M2QQ - Hans E Elhers
- Coordinator: 9W2PD - Rabindra
5. Rumah Api Bukit Segenting, Batu Pahat, Johor
Callsign: 9M4LHJ (Lima Hotel Juliet) (01.47.50N, 102.53.40E)
WLOL#: WMA 002 & ILLW #: MY 0008
- Station Master: 9M2NP - Narayanan (Thango)
- Coordinator: 9W2BUG – Jayakanthan
6. Rumah Api Tanjung Gelang, Kuantan Pahang
Callsign: 9M4LHC (Lima Hotel Charlie) (03.57.79N, 103.26.23E)
WLOL#: WMA 024 & ILLW #: MY 0002
- Station Master: 9M2TOT - Ibrahim Musa
- Coordinator: 9W2RZL – Rizal
7. Rumah Api Pulau Layangan, Sabah
Callsign: 9M4LHS (Lima Hotel Sierra) (06.00.11N, 116.03.46E)
WLOL#: EMA 018 & ILLW #: MY 0007
- Station Master: 9M6DJC – Christopher
- Coordinator: 9W6BOY - Daniel Haikal
Monday, July 27, 2009
2. Percayakah anda?..Wanita mengelipkan mata dua kali lebih kerap daripada lelaki dan jantung wanita juga berdegup lebih laju berbanding jantung lelaki. Tapi percayakah juga anda bahawa, lelaki selalu ada dua mata air dan jantung mereka juga berdegup dengan lebih laju jika diketahui oleh isteri.
3. Terdapat kira-kira 3,000 spesis pokok dalam setiap kawasan seluas 1.6 km persegi di hutan Amazon dimana jika seseorang bernama Saiful memasuki kawasan itu, beliau berkemungkinan akan tersesat selama 3,000 jam jika tidak membawa kompas.
4. Uri Geller, ahli psikik terkenal yang dilahirkan pada 20 Disember 1946, mengatakan bahawa kebolehan luar biasa yang dimilikinya itu berasal dari planet Hoova dan kadangkala dia juga memekik sambil mengatakan yang dia adalah seorang Ultraman!.
5. Tahukah anda?..Manusia hanya menggunakan 10% daripada otaknya. Tetapi ini tidak bermakna baki 90% lagi perlu dibuang kerana jika dibuang sudah terbuktilah manusia itu dari jenis yang tidak ada otak!!.
6. Apabila marah, Tasmanian Devil (sejenis haiwan yang hidup di pulau Tasmanian, selatan Australia) akan bertukar warna menjadi kemerah-merahan. Bila Makcik Leha marah, wajahnya juga akan bertukar menjadi kemerah-merahan padahal mereka bukanlah dari spesies yang sama.
7. Gelas kaca pecah dengan kelajuan 4,827 km/j. Pecah Kaca, Pecah Gelas, Sudah Baca Harap Balas pula ialah ayat yang selalu diguna oleh budak-budak sekolah ketika bercinta.
8. Tahukah anda?..Otak kita mengandungi 80% air. Walaubagaimanapun. .seseorang yang sudah lama tidak membuat hubungan kelamin bersama isteri akan mengalami satu sindrom yang berkaitan otak iaitu sindrom masuk air.
9. Tahukah anda?..Belang yg kita lihat pada harimau bukan sekadar pada bulunya tapi pada kulitnya. Belang pada lelaki berhidung belang pula bukan sekadar pada hidungnya, tapi juga pada bulu hidungnya.
10. Tidak ada satu pun perkataan yang bermula dengan huruf 'W' dalam bahasa Sepanyol. Sementara itu, hanya terdapat 12 huruf dalam bahasa Hawaii iaitu A,E,H,I,K,L, M,N,O,P,U dan W. Untuk pengetahuan juga, didalam Bahasa Inggeris dan Melayu mesti menggunakan ke semua huruf dari A-Z kecuali yang buta huruf kerana mereka tidak tahu membaca.
11. Hanya ada empat perkataan sahaja dalam bahasa Inggeris yang berakhir dengan bunyi-'dous' iaitu tremendous, horrendous, stupendous dan hazardous. Ini membuatkan seseorang yang bernama Fidaus berasa bangga sekejap.
12. Tahukah anda?..Di negara Norway, terdapat sebuah tempat di panggil Hell (neraka) manakala kalau kita berbuat jahat selalu, tempat yang kita akan pergi juga bernama Hell.
13. Menurut kajian ahli sains, secara puratanya, kita akan berhenti bercakap setiap tujuh minit. Tetapi menurut seorang ahli sains yang lain yang bisu sejak lahir, secara puratanya, dia tidak boleh langsung bercakap seumur hidupnya.
14. Siapakah Thomas Mapother?? Lelaki itu adalah pelakon tampan, Tom Cruise, sebelum dia menukar namanya. Siapakah pula Latiff Sufian?? Lelaki itu pula ialah cuma seorang tukang kebun di Sekolah Rendah Kampung Kerinchi.
15. Untuk mengekalkan suhu sejuk, burung unta akan mengencingkan kakinya sendiri supaya ia akan berasa sejuk apabila air itu menyejat. Anda juga boleh berbuat demikian jika hendak berbau hancing.
16. Dipetik dari kenyataan sebuah majalah, tembakau membunuh lebih ramai rakyat Amerika (seramai 450,000 orang) setiap tahun berbanding alkohol, kokain, heroin, homisid, bunuh diri, kemalangan kereta, kebakaran dan AIDS. Untuk menyembunyikan rasa takut dikalangan orang-orang kaya pula, majalah tersebut tidak berani untuk mengatakan bahawa tembikar yang di beli dengan harga yang mahal juga mampu membunuh jika dihentak dikepala dengan kadar yang kuat.
17. Tomato dan Timun adalah buah-buahan ya, bukan sayur. Taugeh dan Sawi pula ialah nama samaran pelukis majalah kartun Ujang ya, bukan Utopia.
18. Agensi keselamatan antarabangsa mengatakan jangan takut untuk menaiki kapal terbang kerana ia merupakan alat pengangkutan yang paling selamat. Ia jauh lebih selamat berbanding motosikal, bas, kereta api dan kereta. Akan tetapi agensi itu mungkin terlupa akibat jikalau kapal terbang itu terhempas ke atas jalanraya dan menimpa semua orang yang menaiki kenderaan yang disebut tadi adalah kebarangkaliannya akan hancur lebur.
19. Jangan terkejut, kalau diceraikan satu per satu dan kemudian disusun semula, seluruh batu yang terdapat pada Tembok Besar China, cukup untuk mengelilingi bumi pada garisan khatulistiwa dengan ketinggian 2.5 meter dan jangan terkejut dengan penceraian artis-artis tempatan kerana itu semua publisiti murahan yang dapat menaikan populariti pada carta bintang paling popular.
20. Mengikut fakta, sebelum era Masihi, terdapat satu perkidmatan 'pos laju' menggunakan kuda di Parsi. Posmennya akan memakai pengikat kepala dan menghantar surat tersebut merentasi Asia, beratus-ratus km tanpa henti. Mengikut akta pula, seorang Posmen yang menaiki EX5 merah dari Pos Malaysia, jika selalu berhenti-henti minum kopi di kedai mamak boleh diberhentikan kerja serta-merta.
21. Dianggarkan sel kulit yang mati yang hilang sepanjang hayat kita cukup untuk mengisi lapan beg tepung seberat tiga kilogram dan tepung itu kalau di buat roti canai, rasanya amat lazat jika dimakan bersama-sama dengan kari kepala ikan.
22. Ini adalah benar, ngauman seekor singa mampu didengari sejauh 3 km kecuali orang yang pekak walaupun dia hanya berada 3 cm sahaja dari singa tersebut.
23. Permukaan bumi adalah seluas 153,295,000 km persegi manakala orang yang jauh perjalanannya sewaktu berkelana seperti Azroy dari filem Gila-Gila Remaja pula hanya mendapat luas permandangan memandangkan dia hanya mengelilingi Kuala Lumpur sahaja.
24. Tahukah anda?..Seekor lembu kentut sebanyak 200 kali lebih banyak berbanding manusia. Tetapi ini tidaklah ada apa-apa berbanding dengan kentut seorang manusia yang bernama Faizal, tidak berbunyi tapi busuk.
Our friend intends to do an International Light House Ham Radio Weekend and he has prepared the paper below for your attention.
Enjoy reading -
i. This event is not a contest, there are no prizes or any other enticements to participate and is therefore free of charge.
ii. To promote public awareness of ham radio and lighthouses in Malaysia.
iii. To acknowledge the contribution and recognition of the lighthouses and their keepers.
iv. To foster fellowship among members of the various Ham Radio clubs and Lighthouse Societies in Malaysia.
v. To gain experience for DX-peditions for the Ham Radio operators and to promote “exotic” Malaysia among International DXCC chasers or seekers.
vi. Pilot project proposed, as a future yearly event on the 2nd weekend of August and to be inserted in the Tourism Malaysia Calendar of the year.
i. Since the 2nd weekend of August every year, coincides with the “Asia Pacific JOTA”, this ILLW event is extended to all Boy Scouts and Girl Guides via BP House Malaysia, to join in the fun at the light houses or contact the light houses via Ham Radio.
Date: 1st till 31st August 2009 (MST)
1. Weekend 2 – 8 Aug 09 (Sat), 9am till 9 Aug 09 (Sun) 3pm (30hrs)
2. Weekend 3 – 15 Aug 09 (Sat), 9am till 16 Aug 09 (Sun) 3pm (30hrs)
1. Jabatan Laut Malaysia
2. Kementerian Belia Dan Sukan
3. Suruhanjaya Komunikasi dan Multimedia Malaysia
4. Kementerian Pelancongan & Tourism Malaysia
5. Pejabat Menteri Besar & Local Council
13. Kinabalu Radio Club
15. Kuching Radio Club
16. Brunei Darrusallam Radio Society
18. All other groups within Malaysia
Light Houses Station Master:
1. Rumah Api Fort Cornwallis, 9M2BA – Azmi Abdullah
2. Rumah Api Muka Head
3. Rumah Api Pulau Rimau
1. Rumah Api Pulau Angsa 9M2CJ – Thiam Chee Ming
2. Rumah Api One Fathom Bank
3. Rumah Api Kuala Selangor 9M2SQL – Abdul Mutalib Omar
4. Rumah Api Bukit Jugra 9M2JEN - Saiful, 9M2ONE - Aziz
1. Negeri Sembilan / Melaka
1. Rumah Api Cape Rachado 9M2QQ – Hans Elhers
2. Rumah Api Pulau Undan 9M2WT – William Tan
1. Rumah Api Bukit Segenting 9M2NP - Tango (Narayanan Pillai)
2. Tanjung Piai Lightbeacon
3. Pulau Pisang Light House
4. Tg Api Api Light House 9M2DA Deen Atan
5. Tg Tenggaroh Light House
6. Pulau Mungging Light House
1. Rumah Api Tanjung Gelang 9M2TOT Ibrahim B Musa
1. Kelantan / Terengannu
1. Tumpat Light House
2. Pantai Senok . Pengkalan Daty Light House
3. Seabelle Rock Light House, Pulau Perhentian
4. Bukit Puteri Light House Kuala Terengganu
1. Tanjung Kubong Light House 9M6DJC – M Christoper
2. Pulau Papan Light House
3. Pulau Gaya Light House
4. Pulau Kalampunian Light House
5. Pulau Silingan Light House
6. Tanjung Trang Light House
7. Bagahak Light House
8. Pulau Si Aimil Light House
1. Tanjung Dato Light House 9M8DB – Johnny
2. Tanjung Po Light House
3. Tanjung Jerijeh Light House
4. Tanjung Sirik Light House
5. Tanjung Kidurong Light House
6. Tanjung Lobang Light House
7. Tanjung Baram Light House
ITENERARY FOR ILLW AT JUGRA LIGHTHOUSE
Date/Time Start: 15/8/2009 , 9am
Date/Time Finish: 16/8/2009, 3pm
Locaton: Jugra Lighthouse, Banting
Accomodation: Bring your own tent
Food: On your own ( of course kopi kow & biscuits provided).. there are talks that someone will sponsor the lamb barbeque..
Any donation in any form are welcome.
On 15/6/2008, there will be sembahyang Jemaah Maghrib & Isyak and Tahlil before continue DX. Please bring yr own sejadah, kain, anything else..
Station Master: 9M2JEN, 9M2ONE
Project Manager: 9W2YR
Others: 9W2BDZ, 9W2MSG, 9W2DNO, 9W2YDP, 9W2BCT, 9W2RES, 9W2EEE, SWL Akie
- All participants are required to register themself & obtain the ID Tag at the entrance. ID Tag to be wear at all time.
- There will be TV3 shooting during the event.
- Please observe the rules & regulation. This is restricted area. Do not trespass the "No Entry Area".
- Jangan berkelakuan sumbang, nanti time tido kena angkat ke kubur cina di bawah tu.. (joking..hehe)
Come & experience DXing with far station around the globe...
Wednesday, May 20, 2009
Tempat : Pusat Sumber Pendidikan JAIS, Kg. Jawa, Klang Selangor D.E
Tarikh : 6 - 7 Jun 2009 (Sabtu & Ahad).
Masa : 0830 am - 0530 pm
Bayaran Dewasa : RM 20
Percuma : Peserta berusia bawah 17 Tahun & Peserta berusia 60 tahun keatas.
** Bayaran adalah untuk mengisi tabung repeater**
9M2AGC Ahmad Azlan (Pensyarah Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik Komunikasi - Politeknik Shah Alam)
9W2JEN Saiful Firdaus (Pensyarah Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik Kuasa - UiTM Shah Alam)
** Nota Kelas diberikan percuma kepada 20 peserta terawal.**
** Makanan tidak disediakan**
Fasiliti Lain - Bilik Hawa Dingin, Projector, Surau & Kemudahan asas lain disediakan.
** Untuk peserta yang memerlukan penginapan, kemudahan disediakan dgn bayaran yg minimum oleh JAIS.
Kepada yang berminat, sila hubungi rakan-rakan dibwh:
1) 9W2JEN Saiful Firdaus - 012 506 2958
2) 9W2BDZ Mohd Fadzlee - 012 616 8183
3) 9W2MSG Mohd Suhaimi - 016 385 9795
4) 9W2GTR Mohd Faizal - 012 310 9869
Sunday, April 19, 2009
Dijemput semua ahli ASTRA dan bukan ahli, rakan2 amatur dan komersial, penggemar radio komunikasi bersama menjayakan program di atas.
Pendaftaran keahlian juga disediakan..
2)Pembentangan Aktiviti Lepas
3)Mesyuarat - Minutes, Financial, Perlantikan Baru
Pertanyaan lanjut: 9w2mit - Maz
Thursday, April 16, 2009
Ham Radio Activities
Although a ham radio does broadcast in all directions, hams generally do not use their radios in a broadcast kind of way as a disk jockey would at a radio station. In normal AM or FM radio, one disk jockey transmits and thousands of people listen. Hams, on the other hand, conduct two-way conversations, often with another ham or with a group of hams in an informal roundtable. The roundtable of hams may be in the same town, county, state, country or continent or may consist of a mix of countries, depending on the frequency and the time of the day. Hams also participate in networks, often called nets, at predetermined times and frequencies to exchange third-party messages. In the case of disasters, hams exchange health and welfare information with other hams. Some hams use radioteletype, (RTTY) with computer screens replacing the noisy teletype machines of the past.
Many hams get their start on VHF FM, using battery-operated hand-held transceivers set to transmit on one frequency and receive on another frequency. They use FM repeaters, set up and supported by local radio clubs. These repeaters borrow antenna space from TV-station-tower owners on top of mountains and high buildings to receive and re-broadcast signals to extend the range.
When deadly floods struck central and southern Texas in mid-October 1998, amateur radio operators from four states volunteered their time. Susan Manor, NF0T, is shown helping with communications at the New Braunfels Red Cross office.
The FM repeater receives one signal at a time and simultaneously rebroadcasts it on another frequency using many more watts of power than available from a small hand-held radio. This extends the range of the hand-held radio from a few miles to tens or hundreds of miles! The whole country has these repeaters! (Listen to one with a radio scanner to learn a lot about ham radio.) When a ham is traveling, he or she can find a repeater to use (great for tips on local restaurants), and carry on a nice, static-free, FM-radio-quality conversation via a radio that fits in the shirt pocket or purse. Linked repeaters allow fun wireless communications across an entire state with a hand-held radio.
Repeaters use common transmit and receive frequency pairs. The frequency pairs in use are informally assigned by groups of hams so that any frequency pair in use is far enough from another repeater so as not to cause unwanted interference.
Amateur radio satellites are a cutting-edge use of technology in amateur radio. Radio amateurs use their hand-held radios to communicate through an amateur radio satellite when the satellite is overhead. A current British satellite has a receiver (uplink) at 145.975 MHz and simultaneously rebroadcasts (downlink) at 435.070 MHz for one station at a time, as a repeater.
Natural disasters like hurricanes or tornadoes disrupt normal telephone and cell phone systems. Ham radio operators pitch in to help with emergency communications, and you will often hear about them on news reports.
On Space Shuttle missions, each member of the crew usually has an amateur radio operator's license. During breaks, astronauts hold their 1- to 5-watt VHF FM hand-held radios up to the shuttle window and chat with other hams for a few minutes, often at schools while the shuttle is in an orbit overhead! VHF transmissions have a limit to line-of-sight communications and normally do not travel over the horizon, so a conversation is limited to the time when the shuttle is overhead. The space station MIR used 145.985 MHz for similar conversations. Future ham radio efforts in space will focus on the use of amateur radio within the International Space Station (ARISS) project.
Ham Radio Equipment
A typical ham radio is a transmitter and a receiver, usually purchased as one unit, called a transceiver. Newer transceiver models often have semi-complicated controls and menu systems that may take some reading of the manual. You may be able to find an older transceiver with controls that are easier to use as a beginner, having the usual analog controls.
Vintage tube-type short-wave receiver
Hand-held transceivers have their own antennas. Many hams choose to do most of their operating from their automobile during commute times, using a magnetic mount antenna connected to an under-dash transceiver or a hand-held radio.
Ham radio station in automobile
Depending on the size (hand-held or desktop), power can be from a few milliwatts to 1,500 watts. Many new hams are graduates from citizens band (CB) radio. Unlike the 5-watt limit on CB, hams can use quite a bit more power (1,500 watts).
The ham radio can fit in your shirt pocket, take up half of an attic or garage, sit on a desk next to the computer or go into a car. Right now, during the current sunspot cycle, it is possible to talk around the world during daylight hours running just a few watts of power. This particular type of radio-wave propagation is in the 28-MHz band (commonly called the 10-meter band) thanks to short-wave propagation (300 divided by the frequency in MHz is a quick way to convert to "meters").
Little whip antennas, wire antennas in trees, and antennas atop a tower are all used, depending on the frequency in use. Lower frequencies have longer wavelengths. Longer wavelengths need larger antennas. The same antennas (used to transmit and receive) can be small, portable, put in trees or on the trunk of a car.
The common 146-MHz (2-meter) antenna is a 19-inch quarter-wave whip. A wavelength at 146 MHz is approximately 2 (300 divided by 146) meters, and a quarter wave of 2 meters is about 19 inches (50 cm). Hams enjoy the fun of experimenting with various types of antennas. Some antennas are made of wire strung between trees. Be sure to use lightning protection for outside antennas!
Hams, including the writer of this article, have communicated with other hams using the following types of antennas with antenna tuners:
- Metal window screens in upper floors of hotels and motels
- Aluminum extension ladders, insulated from the ground, leaning against a house (the lower the frequency, the longer the ladder)
- Soldered-together rain gutters and downspouts
- Flat copper "burglar-tape" hidden behind wallpapered walls
- Extended "Slinky" toys supported by a rope through the middle, in an attic
- Camera-tripod-supported whip antenna
- Disguised flagpoles fed with buried coaxial cable
- Fine wires cast with a fishing rod between dormitory buildings
What keeps ham operators from transmitting on the same frequency?
Many hams can be on the same frequency, but it depends on the propagation factors. VHF and UHF are line-of-sight, so many hams can be on the same frequency in one state. On short-wave bands, radios have variable frequency tuning to allow moving your transmitted signal (in very small increments) in between two other transmitting stations. Hams often do a lot more listening than transmitting. Often, they listen for another ham that identifies the station as being in a sought-after county, state, or country.
This LCD on a modern transceiver is displaying the spectrum of nearby stations. The band-scope at the bottom helps ham operators find signals.
Hams collect confirmations of contacts using QSL cards. Hams collect the QSL cards and receive awards for contacting so many countries on certain frequency bands. VHF and UHF hand-held radios typically use channeled communications, using selectable fixed frequencies.
How Ham Radio Works
by Brown, Gary. "How Ham Radio Works." 01 April 2000. HowStuffWorks.com.
A teen in Florida makes friends over the airwaves with a ham in Germany. An aircraft engineer in Washington participates in an annual contest and exchanges call signs with hams in 100 countries during a single weekend. In North Carolina, volunteers pass health and welfare messages in the aftermath of a hurricane.
This mix of fun, public service, friendship and convenience is the main feature of amateur radio. The true origin of the term "ham" seems to have been lost, but there are several theories. It may simply be a shortcut way of saying the first syllable of amateur radio, or it may have originally been used as an insult. Hams start out in amateur radio for many reasons, but they all have in common a basic knowledge of radio technology, regulations and operating principles.
Ham radio can be very portable and affordable. In this article, we will look at ham radio and show you how to get started in this wireless world!
Why would I get into ham radio?
Ham radio is for anyone who likes to communicate with others via wireless technology. It is also for anyone who enjoys experimentation. Licensed amateur radio operators communicate with each other in nearby places, across the country, around the world or even with astronauts in outer space!
Amateur radio is a worldwide group of people who communicate with each other over a wide frequency spectrum using many different types of wireless transmitting modes.
Often, younger hams get a chance to meet other hams of various ages and professions. For example, Kid's Day is an annual event that encourages young people to get on the air, perhaps with a family member or a neighbor who is a licensed amateur radio operator. The frequent networking often helps teens when they are making career or education choices and wish to get some advice (from professionals in many technical fields) that maybe mom, dad or the guidance counselor may not be able to give.
Today, there are more than 2.5 million around the world.
Frequencies and Transmitting Modes
Hams use a variety of frequencies for communications. Non-hams can "listen in" via their own receivers or radio scanners. Hams are able to use many frequency bands across the radio spectrum -- these frequencies are allocated by the FCC for amateur use. Hams may operate from just above the AM broadcast band to the microwave region, in the gigahertz range. Many ham bands are found in the frequency range that goes from above the AM radio band (1.6 MHz) to just above the citizens band (27 MHz). During daylight, 15 to 27 MHz is a good band for long-distance communications. At night, the band from 1.6 to 15 MHz is good for long-distance communications. These bands are often referred to historically as short-wave bands (as in "short-wave radio"). Unlike frequencies used by FM radio stations and TV stations, which are line-of-sight and therefore limited to 40 or 50 miles, short-waves "bounce" off the ionosphere from the transmitter to the receiver's antenna. The higher the frequency is, the "shorter" the wavelength is.
Some ham radio operators use the very reliable Morse code, while others use voice. Morse code signals (beeps) often get through when voice transmissions cannot. There are also very many digital modes as well, and hams use radio modems to communicate in various networks.
The Simplest AM ReceiverIn the case of a strong AM signal, it turns out that you can create a simple radio receiver with just two parts and some wire! The process is extremely simple -- here's what you need:
- A diode - You can get a diode for about $1 at Radio Shack. Part number 276-1123 will do.
- Two pieces of wire - You'll need about 20 to 30 feet (15 to 20 meters) of wire. Radio Shack part number 278-1224 is great, but any wire will do.
- A small metal stake that you can drive into the ground (or, if the transmitter has a guard rail or metal fence nearby, you can use that)
- A crystal earphone - Unfortunately, Radio Shack does not sell one. However, Radio Shack does sell a Crystal Radio Kit (part number 28-178) that contains the earphone, diode, wire and a tuner (which means that you don't need to stand right next to the transmitter for this to work), all for $10.
You now need to find and be near an AM radio station's transmitting tower (within a mile/1.6 km or so) for this to work. Here's what you do:
- Drive the stake into the ground, or find a convenient metal fence post. Strip the insulation off the end of a 10-foot (3-meter) piece of wire and wrap it around the stake/post five or 10 times to get a good solid connection. This is the ground wire.
- Attach the diode to the other end of the ground wire.
- Take another piece of wire, 10 to 20 feet long (3 to 6 meters), and connect one end of it to the other end of the diode. This wire is your antenna. Lay it out on the ground, or hang it in a tree, but make sure the bare end does not touch the ground.
- Connect the two leads from the earplug to either end of the diode, like this:
Now if you put the earplug in your ear, you will hear the radio station -- that is the simplest possible radio receiver! This super-simple project will not work if you are very far from the station, but it does demonstrate how simple a radio receiver can be.
Here's how it works. Your wire antenna is receiving all sorts of radio signals, but because you are so close to a particular transmitter it doesn't really matter. The nearby signal overwhelms everything else by a factor of millions. Because you are so close to the transmitter, the antenna is also receiving lots of energy -- enough to drive an earphone! Therefore, you don't need a tuner or batteries or anything else. The diode acts as a detector for the AM signal as described in the previous section. So you can hear the station despite the lack of a tuner and an amplifier!
The Crystal Radio Kit that Radio Shack sells (28-178) contains two extra parts: an inductor and a capacitor. These two parts create a tuner that gives the radio extra range. See How Oscillators Work for details.
You have probably noticed that almost every radio you see (like your cell phone, the radio in your car, etc.) has an antenna. Antennas come in all shapes and sizes, depending on the frequency the antenna is trying to receive. The antenna can be anything from a long, stiff wire (as in the AM/FM radio antennas on most cars) to something as bizarre as a satellite dish. Radio transmitters also use extremely tall antenna towers to transmit their signals.
The idea behind an antenna in a radio transmitter is to launch the radio waves into space. In a receiver, the idea is to pick up as much of the transmitter's power as possible and supply it to the tuner. For satellites that are millions of miles away, NASA uses huge dish antennas up to 200 feet (60 meters ) in diameter!
The size of an optimum radio antenna is related to the frequency of the signal that the antenna is trying to transmit or receive. The reason for this relationship has to do with the speed of light, and the distance electrons can travel as a result. The speed of light is 186,000 miles per second (300,000 kilometers per second). On the next page, we'll use this number to calculate a real-life antenna size.
Antenna: Real-life Examples
Let's say that you are trying to build a radio tower for radio station 680 AM. It is transmitting a sine wave with a frequency of 680,000 hertz. In one cycle of the sine wave, the transmitter is going to move electrons in the antenna in one direction, switch and pull them back, switch and push them out and switch and move them back again. In other words, the electrons will change direction four times during one cycle of the sine wave. If the transmitter is running at 680,000 hertz, that means that every cycle completes in (1/680,000) 0.00000147 seconds. One quarter of that is 0.0000003675 seconds. At the speed of light, electrons can travel 0.0684 miles (0.11 km) in 0.0000003675 seconds. That means the optimal antenna size for the transmitter at 680,000 hertz is about 361 feet (110 meters). So AM radio stations need very tall towers. For a cell phone working at 900,000,000 (900 MHz), on the other hand, the optimum antenna size is about 8.3 cm or 3 inches. This is why cell phones can have such short antennas.
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You might have noticed that the AM radio antenna in your car is not 300 feet long -- it is only a couple of feet long. If you made the antenna longer it would receive better, but AM stations are so strong in cities that it doesn't really matter if your antenna is the optimal length.
You might wonder why, when a radio transmitter transmits something, radio waves want to propagate through space away from the antenna at the speed of light. Why can radio waves travel millions of miles? Why doesn't the antenna just have a magnetic field around it, close to the antenna, as you see with a wire attached to a battery? One simple way to think about it is this: When current enters the antenna, it does create a magnetic field around the antenna. We have also seen that the magnetic field will create an electric field (voltage and current) in another wire placed close to the transmitter. It turns out that, in space, the magnetic field created by the antenna induces an electric field in space. This electric field in turn induces another magnetic field in space, which induces another electric field, which induces another magnetic field, and so on. These electric and magnetic fields (electromagnetic fields) induce each other in space at the speed of light, traveling outward away from the antenna.
For more information on radio and related topics, check out the links on the next page.
A (Slightly) More Elaborate Radio
If you want to get a little more elaborate, use a metal file and two pieces of wire. Connect the handle of the file to one terminal of your 9-volt battery. Connect the other piece of wire to the other terminal, and run the free end of the wire up and down the file. If you do this in the dark, you will be able to see very small 9-volt sparks running along the file as the tip of the wire connects and disconnects with the file's ridges. Hold the file near an AM radio and you will hear a lot of static.
In the early days of radio, the transmitters were called spark coils, and they created a continuous stream of sparks at much higher voltages (e.g. 20,000 volts). The high voltage created big fat sparks like you see in a spark plug, and they could transmit farther. Today, a transmitter like that is illegal because it spams the entire radio spectrum, but in the early days it worked fine and was very common because there were not many people using radio waves.
Radio Basics: The Parts
As seen in the previous section, it is incredibly easy to transmit with static. All radios today, however, use continuous sine waves to transmit information (audio, video, data). The reason that we use continuous sine waves today is because there are so many different people and devices that want to use radio waves at the same time. If you had some way to see them, you would find that there are literally thousands of different radio waves (in the form of sine waves) around you right now -- TV broadcasts, AM and FM radio broadcasts, police and fire radios, satellite TVGPS signals, and so on. It is amazing how many uses there are for radio waves today (see How the Radio Spectrum Works to get an idea). Each different radio signal uses a different sine wave frequency, and that is how they are all separated. transmissions, cell phone conversations,
Any radio setup has two parts:
- The receiver
Radio Basics: Real-life ExamplesA baby monitor is about as simple as radio technology gets. There is a transmitter that sits in the baby's room and a receiver that the parents use to listen to the baby. Here are some of the important characteristics of a typical baby monitor:
- Modulation: Amplitude Modulation (AM)
- Frequency range: 49 MHz
- Number of frequencies: 1 or 2
- Transmitter power: 0.25 watts
A typical baby monitor, with the receiver on the left and the transmitter on the right: The transmitter sits in the baby's room and is essentially a mini "radio station." The parents carry the receiver around the house to listen to the baby. Typical transmission distance is limited to about 200 feet (61 m).
A cell phone is also a radio and is a much more sophisticated device (see How Cell Phones Work for details). A cell phone contains both a transmitter and a receiver, can use both of them simultaneously, can understand hundreds of different frequencies, and can automatically switch between frequencies. Here are some of the important characteristics of a typical analog cell phone:
- Modulation: Frequency Modulation (FM)
- Frequency range: 800 MHz
- Number of frequencies: 1,664 (832 per provider, two providers per area)
- Transmitter power: 3 watts
A typical cell phone contains both a transmitter and a receiver, and both operate simultaneously on different frequencies. A cell phone communicates with a cell phone tower and can transmit 2 or 3 miles (3-5 km).
You can get an idea for how a radio transmitter works by starting with a battery and a piece of wire. In How Electromagnets Work, you can see that a battery sends electricity (a stream of electrons) through a wire if you connect the wire between the two terminals of the battery. The moving electrons create a magnetic field surrounding the wire, and that field is strong enough to affect a compass.
Let's say that you take another wire and place it parallel to the battery's wire but several inches (5 cm) away from it. If you connect a very sensitive voltmeter to the wire, then the following will happen: Every time you connect or disconnect the first wire from the battery, you will sense a very small voltage and current in the second wire; any changing magnetic field can induce an electric field in a conductor -- this is the basic principle behind any electrical generator. So:
- The battery creates electron flow in the first wire.
- The moving electrons create a magnetic field around the wire.
- The magnetic field stretches out to the second wire.
- Electrons begin to flow in the second wire whenever the magnetic field in the first wire changes.
One important thing to notice is that electrons flow in the second wire only when you connect or disconnect the battery. A magnetic field does not cause electrons to flow in a wire unless the magnetic field is changing. Connecting and disconnecting the battery changes the magnetic field (connecting the battery to the wire creates the magnetic field, while disconnecting collapses the field), so electrons flow in the second wire at those two moments.
Simple Transmitters: Make Your OwnTo create a simple radio transmitter, what you want to do is create a rapidly changing electric current in a wire. You can do that by rapidly connecting and disconnecting a battery, like this:
When you connect the battery, the voltage in the wire is 1.5 volts, and when you disconnect it, the voltage is zero volts. By connecting and disconnecting a battery quickly, you create a square wave that fluctuates between 0 and 1.5 volts.
A better way is to create a continuously varying electric current in a wire. The simplest (and smoothest) form of a continuously varying wave is a sine wave like the one shown below:
A sine wave fluctuates smoothly between, for example,
10 volts and -10 volts.
By creating a sine wave and running it through a wire, you create a simple radio transmitter. It is extremely easy to create a sine wave with just a few electronic components -- a capacitor and an inductor can create the sine wave, and a couple of transistors can amplify the wave into a powerful signal (see How Oscillators Work for details, and here is a simple transmitter schematic). By sending that signal to an antenna, you can transmit the sine wave into space.
Transmitting InformationIf you have a sine wave and a transmitter that is transmitting the sine wave into space with an antenna, you have a radio station. The only problem is that the sine wave doesn't contain any information. You need to modulate the wave in some way to encode information on it. There are three common ways to modulate a sine wave:
- Pulse Modulation - In PM, you simply turn the sine wave on and off. This is an easy way to send Morse code. PM is not that common, but one good example of it is the radio system that sends signals to radio-controlled clocks in the United States. One PM transmitter is able to cover the entire United States!
- Amplitude Modulation - Both AM radio stations and the picture part of a TV signal use amplitude modulation to encode information. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the sine wave (its peak-to-peak voltage) changes. So, for example, the sine wave produced by a person's voice is overlaid onto the transmitter's sine wave to vary its amplitude.
- Frequency Modulation - FM radio stations and hundreds of other wireless technologies (including the sound portion of a TV signal, cordless phones, cell phones, etc.) use frequency modulation. The advantage to FM is that it is largely immune to static. In FM, the transmitter's sine wave frequency changes very slightly based on the information signal.
Once you modulate a sine wave with information, you can transmit the information!
Receiving an AM Signal
Here's a real world example. When you tune your car's AM radio to a station -- for example, 680 on the AM dial -- the transmitter's sine wave is transmitting at 680,000 hertz (the sine wave repeats 680,000 times per second). The DJ's voice is modulated onto that carrier wave by varying the amplitude of the transmitter's sine wave. An amplifier amplifies the signal to something like 50,000 watts for a large AM station. Then the antenna sends the radio waves out into space.
So how does your car's AM radio -- a receiver -- receive the 680,000-hertz signal that the transmitter sent and extract the information (the DJ's voice) from it? Here are the steps:
- Unless you are sitting right beside the transmitter, your radio receiver needs an antenna to help it pick the transmitter's radio waves out of the air. An AM antenna is simply a wire or a metal stick that increases the amount of metal the transmitter's waves can interact with.
- Your radio receiver needs a tuner. The antenna will receive thousands of sine waves. The job of a tuner is to separate one sine wave from the thousands of radio signals that the antenna receives. In this case, the tuner is tuned to receive the 680,000-hertz signal.
Tuners work using a principle called resonance. That is, tuners resonate at, and amplify, one particular frequency and ignore all the other frequencies in the air. It is easy to create a resonator with a capacitor and an inductor (check out How Oscillators Work to see how inductors and capacitors work together to create a tuner).
- The tuner causes the radio to receive just one sine wave frequency (in this case, 680,000 hertz). Now the radio has to extract the DJ's voice out of that sine wave. This is done with a part of the radio called a detector or demodulator. In the case of an AM radio, the detector is made with an electronic component called a diode. A diode allows current to flow through in one direction but not the other, so it clips off one side of the wave, like this:
- The radio next amplifies the clipped signal and sends it to the speakers (or a headphone). The amplifier is made of one or more transistors (more transistors means more amplification and therefore more power to the speakers).
In an FM radio, the detector is different, but everything else is the same. In FM, the detector turns the changes in frequency into sound, but the antenna, tuner and amplifier are largely the same.
How Radio Works
by Brain, Marshall. "How Radio Works." 07 December 2000. HowStuffWorks.com.
Inside this Article
"Radio waves" transmit music, conversations, pictures and data invisibly through the air, often over millions of miles -- it happens every day in thousands of different ways! Even though radio waves are invisible and completely undetectable to humans, they have totally changed society. Whether we are talking about a cell phone, a baby monitor, a cordless phone or any one of the thousands of other wireless technologies, all of them use radio waves to communicate.
Here are just a few of the everyday technologies that depend on radio waves:
- AM and FM radio broadcasts
- Cordless phones
- Garage door openers
- Wireless networks
- Radio-controlled toys
- Television broadcasts
- Cell phones
- GPS receivers
- Ham radios
- Satellite communications
- Police radios
- Wireless clocks
The list goes on and on... Even things like radar and microwave ovens depend on radio waves. Things like communication and navigation satellites would be impossible without radio waves, as would modern aviation -- an airplane depends on a dozen different radio systems. The current trend toward wireless Internet access uses radio as well, and that means a lot more convenience in the future!
The funny thing is that, at its core, radio is an incredibly simple technology. With just a couple of electronic components that cost at most a dollar or two, you can build simple radio transmitters and receivers. The story of how something so simple has become a bedrock technology of the modern world is fascinating!
In this article, we will explore the technology of radio so that you can completely understand how invisible radio waves make so many things possible!
The Simplest Radio
Radio can be incredibly simple, and around the turn of the century this simplicity made early experimentation possible for just about anyone. How simple can it get? Here's an example:
- Take a fresh 9-volt battery and a coin.
- Find an AM radio and tune it to an area of the dial where you hear static.
- Now hold the battery near the antenna and quickly tap the two terminals of the battery with the coin (so that you connect them together for an instant).
- You will hear a crackle in the radio that is caused by the connection and disconnection of the coin.
By tapping the terminals of a 9-volt battery with a coin, you can create radio waves that an AM radio can receive!
Your battery/coin combination is a radio transmitter! It's not transmitting anything useful (just static), and it will not transmit very far (just a few inches, because it's not optimized for distance). But if you use the static to tap out Morse code, you can actually communicate over several inches with this crude device!
Sunday, April 12, 2009
*3370# This Nokia code activates Enhanced Full Rate Codec (EFR) - Your Nokia cell phone uses the best sound quality but talk time is reduced my approx. 5%
#3370# Deactivate Enhanced Full Rate Codec (EFR)
*#4720# Activate Half Rate Codec - Your phone uses a lower quality sound but you should gain approx 30% more Talk Time
*#4720# With this Nokia code you can deactivate the Half Rate Codec
*#0000# Displays your phones software version, 1st Line : Software Version, 2nd Line : Software Release Date, 3rd Line : Compression Type
*#9999# Phones software version if *#0000# does not work
*#06# For checking the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI Number)
#pw+1234567890+1# Provider Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)
#pw+1234567890+2# Network Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)
#pw+1234567890+3# Country Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)
#pw+1234567890+4# SIM Card Lock Status. (use the "*" button to obtain the "p,w" and "+" symbols)
*#147# This lets you know who called you last (Only vodofone)
*#1471# Last call (Only vodofone)
*#21# This phone code allows you to check the number that "All Calls" are diverted to
*#2640# Displays phone security code in use
*#30# Lets you see the private number
*#43# Allows you to check the "Call Waiting" status of your cell phone.
*#61# Allows you to check the number that "On No Reply" calls are diverted to
*#62# Allows you to check the number that "Divert If Unreachable (no service)" calls are diverted to
*#67# Allows you to check the number that "On Busy Calls" are diverted to
*#67705646# Phone code that removes operator logo on 3310 & 3330
*#73# Reset phone timers and game scores
*#746025625# Displays the SIM Clock status, if your phone supports this power saving feature "SIM Clock Stop Allowed", it means you will get the best standby time possible
*#7760# Manufactures code
*#7780# Restore factory settings
*#8110# Software version for the nokia 8110
*#92702689# Displays - 1.Serial Number, 2.Date Made, 3.Purchase Date, 4.Date of last repair (0000 for no repairs), 5.Transfer User Data. To exit this mode you need to switch your phone off then on again
*#94870345123456789# Deactivate the PWM-Mem
**21*number# Turn on "All Calls" diverting to the phone number entered
**61*number# Turn on "No Reply" diverting to the phone number entered
**67*number# Turn on "On Busy" diverting to the phone number entered
12345 This is the default security code
press and hold # Lets you switch between lines
Symb OS v6.1
- Nokia 7650
Nokia N-Gage QD
Symb OS v7.0
- Nokia 3230
Symb OS v8.0
- Nokia 6630
Symb OS v8.1
- Nokia N70
Symb OS v9.1
- Nokia N91
Nokia phones service codes
*#06# - IMEI
*#war0anty# - SIMLOCK info
*3370# - Enhanced Full Rate ON
#3370# - OFF
*4720# - alternative sound quality codec ON
#4720# - OFF
*#7780# - default factory settings
*#7760# - production serial no.
*#2820# - Bluetooth info.
*#73# - reset phone timers and game scores.
*#7370925538# - delete all the content of the wallet and the wallet code.
*#7370# - soft format — erases all telephone memory.
[Green]*3 - hard format — if only the telephone memory is formatted, puts back the attitudes and reboots
*#delset# - MMS/GPRS settings removal
NOTE: code depends on phone model